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16.2.2016, 23:00
16.2.2016, 23:00
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3

1 ࠠ
4

2 򠠠 6

2.1 ࠠ 6

2.2 6

2.3


7

2.4 頠 7

2.5 ⠠ 8

3 9

3.1 9

3.2 9

4. 10

4.1 堠
10

4.2 ࠠ 10

4.3 蠠 10

4.4 蠠 12

4.5 򠠠
14

5 ⠠ 17

5.1 ࠠ 17

5.2 ࠠ 17

6 19

7 ⠠ 20

8 ࠠ
21

9 頠 22

9.1 Ϡ 22

9.2 ࠠ 22

9.3 ࠠ 23

10 堠 24

10.1 ࠠ 24

10.2 ࠠ 25

10.3 ࠠ
29

11 33

12 37

12.1 37

12.1 39

13 蠠 43

14 ࠠ 45

15 ࠠ 46

16 , ,

頠 47

17 ࠠ 48


49

, . -.

. , - - . , , . . v1< 5 /, - v1> 5 /. .

, . V<7...10/ . , . , (), . V>7... 10 / - , .

1

. , , , .

- , . - .

, ( ) . , , (z1=1) z2=100 u =100. . , , . - , . u = 8...90, u=1000 .

, , , . , . . . , . . - , 50 - 200 .

2

2.1 :

. G, V c 1, 1.

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

G,

0,8

1,0

1,25

1,6

2,0

2,5

3,2

4,0

5,0

6,3

V, /

50

50

45

45

40

40

40

35

35

35

,

0,8

0,5

0,6

0,8

1,2

1,5

1,6

2,0

2,0

2,5

1 .

1 . :

(2.1)

- 񠠠 (2.2)

Q=80

Q1=0,25Q=20 kH

GT=1,0Q=80kH .

f=0,1

=0,05

=2 ,

R=125

r=25

, sina=0,00019; cosa=1,0

FB ( FB=0)


(2.3)

Vn , υ =1000, η0=0,8

(2.4)

2.2 .

- (2.5)

: - () .

(2.6)

-

-

-

2.3

(2.7)

-

- .

,

- .

[3, 2.3]:

[2, .3, 29] 700-1 1124, = 5,5 , -1,

S=3,7%, -1.

2.4 .

(2.7)

2.5 .

- ;

- ;

- ;

- .

3.

3.1

[3]

-

(3.1)

(3.2)

3.2 .

,

(3.3)

4.

4.1

4.2

[1, c.211] 45 HRC 45 .

(4.1)

/

93, .

4.3

[1]:

[ σ] =HLv0,9s, (4.2)

v , , Vs=2,39 1,21

s,- , 93 s,=500

HL -

HL =, (4.3)

N=573w2Lh, (4.4)

Lh , Lh=10000

N=5736,8210000=39078600

(4.3):

HL =

HL =0,84

[ σ] =0,841,21500=510

Z1 U = 10 Z1 = 4

Z2 = Z1 x U = 4 x 10 = 40

q = 10;

= 1,2; [1]

[1, c.61]

(4.5)

w =90

(4.6)

2144-76 ( 4.1 4.2)

m = 4

q = 10

Z2 = 40 Z1 = 4

m, q Z2:

(4.7)

aw = 100 .

4.4

.:

(4.8)

(4.9)

(4.10)

[1]

(4.11)

b1=42젠

γ:

γ =arctg(z1/q)

γ =arctg(4/10)

γ = 21 º4805

ha=m=4; hf=1,2x m=4,8; c=0,2x m=0,8.

[1]:

(4.12)

(4.13)

(4.14)

(4.15)

(4.16)

b2=32

(4.17)

-

-

[1, 4.15]

, [1, 4.14]

(4.18)

[1, 4.7] 7- Kv = 1,1

[1, 4.26]

q =10 Z1 =4 [1, 4.6]

=0,6

4.5

< [GH] = 510.

.

.

[1, 4.5] YF = 2,19

Ft, Fa Fr :


(4.19)

(4.20) (4.21)

1.

1 -

, m

4

, z

40

4

, d,

160

40

()

d,

168

48

() df,

150,4

30,4

dm,

172

-

( ),

b,

32

42

1

, γ

21º4805

V, /

0,54

1,36

, Vs, /

1,64

,

Ft,

8725

138

,

Fa,

138

8725

,

Fr,

3176

5

5.1

(.2)

2

( 7.1 [2]):

d1 =25

d2 =d1+2t=25+22,2=29,9

d2 =30

d3≤df1=47,88

d3 =40

l1 =(1,21,5)d1 =1,4x25=35

l2≈1,5d2 =1,5x30=45

l3 =(0,81)dam=170

l4

5.2

(. 3)

3

d1 =50

d2 =d1+2t=50+22,8=55,6

d2 =60

d3= d2 +3,2r=60+3,23=69,6

d3 =71

d5= d3 +3,2r=71+9,6=80

l1 =(1,01,5)d1 =1,250=60

l2≈1,25d2 =1,2560=75

l3 =(0,8..1)dam=170

l4

6

[3]:

=k2 ,
(6.1)

k

k=1,25-1,5

k=1,4

=1,4535,2=748 ×

, d2=50 [2,.2, 12] 1000-1-50-1-3 20761-80. 45.

[ ,

1000>748

.

7

7.2.[2].

100 7306 333-79, - 7512 333-79 (4).

4 333-79.

2.

2

7306

7512

d,

30

60

D,

72

110

,

21

20

b,

19

28

,

17

24

r,

40

94

0r,

29,9

75

8 .

5.

5

9

[4].

6

9.1

d=25 bxh=8x7 2 t=4.

l1=35 l=32.


45 . :

, ×;

l , l=l-b,;

[s] .

, 20 ([s]=70100 /2) :


.

9.2

d=50 bxh=14x9 2 t=5,5.

l1=60 l=45.

45 . .3 ([s]=110190 /2) 2=748 ×:


.

9.3

d=71 bxh=20x12 2 t=7,5.

l1=32 l=32.

45 . 20 ([s]=70100 ) 2=748 ×:


.

3.

3

-

-

-

b,

8

14

20

h,

7

9

12

l,

32

45

32

t1,

4

5,5

7,5

t2,

3,3

3,8

4,9

10

10.1

, (7):

7 - ,

[1, 6.2]:

; (10.1)

5, 1 7 (8).

8

4.

4

Ft,

138

8725

Fr,

3176

Fa,

8725

138

F(F),

1232

5784

d,

40

160

=b,

93

42

,

67

86

10.2 .

.

( )

F :

m=[Faxd/2]:

m=872540×10-3/2=174,5×.

.

1åm=0

-RBy(a+b)+Fra- m=0

RBy=(Fr0,093- m)/ 0,186=(31760,093-174,5)/ 0,186=649,8

RBy=650

2åm=0

Ry(a+b)-Frb- m=0

Ry==(Fr0,093+ m)/ 0,186=(31760,093+174,5)/ 0,186=2526,2

Ry=2526

:

åF=0

Ry- Fr+ RBy=2526-3176+650=0

1,2,2,3 4 :

1=0;

2= Ry;

2=25260,093=235;

2= 2- m();

2=235-174,5=60,5;

3=0;

4=0;

, .

( )

1åm=0;

F(a+b+)-R(a+b)- Fta=0;

1232(0,093+0,093+0,067)-R(0,093+0,093)-1380,093=0;

R=(311,7-12,8)/0,186;

R=1606,9

R1607

2åm=0;

-R(a+b)+Ftb+F= 0;

R=(12,834+82,477)/0,186;

R=512,4

R512

åm=0;

-R+ Ft- F+ R=-512+138-1232+1607=0

1,2,2,3 4 :

1=0;

2= -R;

2=-5120,093=-47,6;

3=- F ;

3=-12320,067=-82,5

4=0;

.

I-I=0;

II-II=T1=Ftd1/2;

II-II=2,76

:

:

9 -

9 , - .

10.3

.10.1.

.

( )

F :

m=[Faxd/2]:

m=138160×10-3/2=11×.

.

1åm=0

-RBy(a+b)+Fra- m=0

RBy=(Fr0,042- m)/ 0,084=(31760,042-11)/ 0,084=1457,04

RBy=1457

2åm=0

Ry(a+b)-Frb- m=0

Ry==(Fr0,042+ m)/ 0,084=(31760,042+11)/ 0,084=1718,95

Ry=1719

:

åF=0

Ry- Fr+ RBy=1719-3176+1457=0

1,2,2,3 4 :

1=0;

2= Ry;

2=17190,042=72,2;

2= 2- m();

2=72,2-11=61,2;

3=0;

4=0;

, .

( )

1åm=0;

Fm(a+b+)-R(a+b)- Fta=0;

5784(0,042+0,042+0,086)-R(0,042+0,042)-87250,042=0;

R=(983,3-366,45)/0,084;

R=7343,2

R7343

2åm=0;

-R(a+b)+Ftb+F= 0;

R=(366,45+497,4)/0,084;

R=10284,2

R10284

åm=0;

-R+ Ft- Fm+R=-7343+8725-5784+10284=0

1,2,2,3 4 :

1=0;

2= -R;

2=-102840,042=-432;

3=- Fm ;

3=-57840,086=-497

4=0;

.

I-I=0;

II-II=T1=Ftd2/2;

II-II=698

:

:

10 -

10 , - .

11

9 10 , - , , , . .

-

11 -

; (11.1)

3 :

bh=2012.

t1=7,5

d3=71.

- [1. 8.5]

(11.2)

(11.3)

; 3;

; 3:

-

; (11.4)

; ;

.

-

; ;

.

. . ( 12), ( 13).

12 -

13 -

:

- :

sv=s; s=0; sv=14.

- :

τv/2; τv=5.

-. , .

έs έτ

2 [1, .166 8.7]

[1, .166 8.7]

;

β , :

R=0,322,5;

β =0,970,9; [1, .162]

β =0,92.

. [1, .162]

(11.5)

; .

ψs=0,1.

. [1, .164]

; (11.6)

;

-Ѡ [1, .162]

(11.7)

[S]=1,55,5 [1, .162]

: , .

12

12.1

n2=652-1;

d3=30;

Ry=2526;

R=512;

RBy=650;

R=1607;

.

,

; (12.1)

;

2 F (9).

;

;

, , ( 2)

;

;

0,35, d3=30.

7306, :

Dn2=72;

n2=21;

0=40 ;

=29,9

=0,34 ;

=1,78 [1,c.402, 7].

[1,c.212, 9.18]

;

V , V=1.

=0,4.

. .

14 - -

S=0,83×e×Fr [1,c.216]

S1=0,83×0,34×1733; S1=489;

S2=0,83×0,34×2577; S2=727.

, .

FaI=S1;

FaII=S2 +FaI;

FaI=489;

FaII=489+723; FaII=1216.

II

F2=(×V×Fr2+×FaII)×Kd×Kτ;

Kd - ;

Kd =1,31,5 [1,c.214, 9.19];

Kd =1,5;

Kτ ;

Kτ =1 ( 100º) [1,c.214, 9.20];

F2=(0,4×1×2577+1,78×1216)×1,5×1; F2=3195=3,2

[1,c.211]; (12.2)

.

(12.2):

; .

Lhmin=10000.

Lh> Lhmin, 7306.

12.2

n2=65,2-1;

d3=60;

Ry=1719;

R=10284;

RBy=1457;

R=7343;

.

, (12.1)

;

2 F (10).

;

;

, , ( 2)

;

;

0,35, d3=60.

7512, :

Dn2=110;

n2=30;

0=94 ;

=75

=0,392 ;

=1,528 [1,c.402, 7].

[1,c.212, 9.18]

>

V , V=1.

=0,4.

. .

15

S=0,83×e×Fr [1,c.216]

S1=0,83×0,392×7496; S1=2440;

S2=0,83×0,392×10426; S2=3392.

, .

FaI=S1;

FaII=S2 +FaI;

FaI=2440;

FaII=2440+3392; FaII=5832.

II

F2=(×V×Fr2+×FaII)×Kd×Kτ;

Kd - ;

Kd =1,31,5 [1,c.214, 9.19];

Kd =1,5;

Kτ ;

Kτ =1 ( 100º) [1,c.214, 9.20];

F2=(0,4×1×10426+1,78×5832)×1,5×1; F2=14550=14,55

[1,c.211]; (12.2)

.

(12.2):

; .

Lhmin=10000.

Lh> Lhmin, 7512.

13 .

VS = 2,38 /. s = 510 /2. 10.29 [3] ---460.

. . h (15):

16

h max £ 0.25d2 = 0.25×160 = 40;

h min = m = 4.

, , , . , , . .

V = 0.65×PII = 0.65×3,65 = 2.37 .

, . . .

-, 8752-79. , .

14

=810 [3]; .

³4; ³(3240)

(2£500)

; , .

. 143 () 144 ( ) [2, .2, .255].

15

[3, 10]. :

-                  ;

-                  , , ;

-                  , ;

-                  ;

-                  , ;

-                  ;

-                  ;

-                  ;

-                  , ;

-                  , ;

-                  , .

.

16 , ,

, , [3]. . (H7/p6). 5.

5 -

,

Ra,

,

1,25

H7/p6

0,63

k6

1,0

H8

0,8

h12

0,4

r6

6,3

h7

:

-

-

2,5

2,5

h12

h12

0,63

k6

2,5

h7

6,3

H14,h14

,

25

H15,h15

17

, [t]=8095º. t=20 º. t [3]:

(18.1)

ή- ,

t =917 /(2) ,

, 2

[3, 11.6] 100 =0,24

(18.1) :

º£[t]

.

1.    .. : . . . 1984.

2.    .. -: 3 . -8- . . . . ... .: , 1999

3.    .. : . . .: . ., 2007

4.    .. . . .: . , 1978

5.    .., : .:.., 2008.



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